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BIOL 110/ WGST 110: Biology and Politics of Women's Health

Type of Sources

Sources by origin, content and intended use:

Think about how the sources were created and for what purpose


"Research literature", reports of research performed by the authors; include experiments or original observations: research articles, reports of new species, theses/dissertations, proceedings of conferences. Usually structured: introduction, materials and methods, results (tables and graphics with measurements) and discussion.


"Review literature", evaluate and discuss primary literature on a specific topic: review articles, editorials, commentaries, science books on a specific topic. Usually include historical background, present status, future developments. Many citations to primary sources.


"Basic information", present summarized versions of the other two on a specific topic: textbooks, encyclopedias, handbooks, dictionaries, documentaries, websites. Suggested as the starting point for the research process. Citations to primary and secondary sources.

Sources by Audience

Think about the target audience for your sources


Usually written by professional journalists for the general public, for entertainment, with common language and superficial content.


Written by experts in the field for students, academics and professionals, provide author’s qualifications, include citations, usually peer-reviewed, technical language, deep content.

Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources

Primary Secondary
An article in the Journal of Family Practice entitled: "Gender Differences in the Utilization of Health Care Services" Which is one of the studies mentioned in a book put out by the World Health Organization: Gender, Women and Primary Health Care Renewal : A Discussion Paper
An article from Ecological Economics on environmental inequality: "Effects of political institutions on air quality" An article from the Annual Review of Public Health that gives an overview of the relationship: "The Haves, the Have-Nots, and the Health of Everyone: The Relationship Between Social Inequality and Environmental Quality"
A case study in a peer reviewed journal on apes such as: "Seasonal Effects on Great Ape Health: A Case Study of Wild Chimpanzees and Western Gorillas" A review article that analyzes the studies to date on ape language like "Ape Language Research: A Review and Behavioral Perspective"
A research article in a journal "The Research–Teaching Nexus in Politics and International Relations in the UK: A Survey of Practices and Attitudes" An editorial in the same journal Editorial 2015 – Diversity in Politics


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